The so-called five-axis machining here refers to at least five coordinate axes (three linear coordinates and two rotational coordinates) on a single machine tool, and can simultaneously coordinate motion for processing under the control of a computer numerical control (CNC) system. Compared with the general three-axis linkage CNC machining, such five-axis linkage CNC machining has the following advantages:
First, it can process continuous and smooth free-form surfaces that cannot be processed by general three-axis or difficult to complete by one-time clamping. Such as aero-engine and steam turbine blades, propellers for ships, and many shells and molds with special curved surfaces and complex cavities, holes, etc., such as ordinary three-axis CNC, due to the tool relative to the workpiece The pose angle cannot be changed during the machining process. When machining some complex free-form surfaces, it is possible to generate interference or under-process (ie, not process). When machining with a five-axis machine tool, since the position angle of the tool/workpiece can be adjusted at any time during the machining process, the interference of the tool workpiece can be avoided and all the machining can be completed in one clamping;
Second, it can improve the processing accuracy, quality and efficiency of space free-form surfaces. For example, when a three-axis machine tool is used to machine complex curved surfaces, a ball-end milling cutter is often used. The ball-end milling cutter is formed by point contact, the cutting efficiency is low, and the tool/workpiece position and angle cannot be adjusted during the machining process, and it is generally difficult to ensure. The cutting is performed at the optimum cutting point on the ball end mill (ie, the highest point of the ball top speed), and it is possible that the cutting point falls on the center line of rotation of the ball end knife at a line speed equal to zero. With the five-axis machine tool, since the tool/workpiece position and angle can be adjusted at any time, it can not only avoid this situation, but also make full use of the optimal cutting point of the tool for cutting or line contact forming. A spiral end mill replaces the point-to-point ball-end milling cutter and can even be milled by further optimizing the tool/workpiece pose angle to achieve higher cutting speeds, cutting line widths, and higher cutting. Efficiency and better surface quality.
Third, the advantages of mold processing. In the traditional mold processing, the vertical machining center is generally used to complete the milling of the workpiece. With the continuous development of mold manufacturing technology, some weaknesses of the vertical machining center itself are becoming more and more obvious. Modern mold processing is generally processed by ball-end milling cutters. The benefits of ball-end milling cutters in mold processing are very obvious, but if a vertical machining center is used, the bottom line has zero line speed, so the bottom surface has a poor finish. If the four or five-axis linkage machining technology is used to process the mold, the above shortcomings can be overcome. The use of five-axis linkage machine tool can quickly complete the mold processing, fast delivery, better guarantee the processing quality of the mold, make mold processing easier, and make mold modification easier.
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