The machining center is often divided into a vertical machining center, a horizontal machining center, a gantry machining center, and a universal machining center according to the state in which the main shaft is in space. The main axis of the machining center is called the vertical machining center when the space is in the vertical state, and the horizontal machining center is called the horizontal machining center.
1: CNC vertical machining center
Most of the structural forms are fixed column type, and the worktable is rectangular, which is suitable for processing discs, sleeves and plate parts. Vertical machining centers usually have three linear motion coordinates, the X Y Z axis, and a fourth axis A axis can be mounted on the table.
The vertical machining center is convenient for clamping, easy to operate, easy to observe the machining situation, and the debugging procedure is convenient. However, due to the influence of the height of the column and the tool change mechanism, the parts that are too high cannot be processed. The vertical machining center has a simple structure, a small footprint and a low price.
2: CNC horizontal machining center
A mobile column is usually used, and the headstock is moved between the two columns and moves up and down along the guide rail. The horizontal machining center usually has three linear motion coordinates. Facing the machine tool, the left and right movements are the X axis, the back and forth movement is the Z axis, and the up and down movement is the Y axis. The horizontal machining center can also mount a fourth axis A axis on the workbench. It can process parts such as spirals and cylindrical cams. Horizontal machining center debugging procedures and trial cutting are inconvenient to observe, inconvenient to monitor during processing, parts clamping and measurement are not convenient, but the processing is easy to discharge.
Compared with the vertical machining center, the horizontal machining center has a complicated structure, a large floor area, with higher price.